Undervis i kernekraft og reaktorer

Som flere sikkert ved er jeg gået i gang med at skrive et kompendie omkring kernekraft. Ambitionen er både at gøre elever i stand til at lave relevante fysiske beregninger på reaktorer, og at stille faktuelle data til rådighed der er relevante for en diskussion for og imod atomkraft.

Kompendiet er gratis til rådighed, og den nyeste version kan altid findes på denne side: Kompendium om kernekraft og klimakrise

Et diagram der viser fordelingen af fissionsprodukter på isotoper efter spaltning af 235U

Jeg er meget stolt af at jeg har skrevet et ret udførligt afsnit omkring hvordan man beregner om en reaktor er i en stabil tilstand, eller om effekten er på vej op eller ned. Med andre ord beregner man værdien af keff, den effektive multiplikationsfaktor.
Denne størrelse afhænger både af reaktorens geometri og størrelse, og af forholdet mellem de forskellige isotoper i reaktoren. Afsnittet mangler den sidste finpudsning, men der er rigelig information til at man kan lave sine egne beregninger.

Et diagram der viser aktiviteten over tid (omregnet til biologisk farlighed) af forskellige komponenter i brugt reaktorbrændsel

Jeg håber at undervisere vil benytte materialet til undervisning i reaktorer, og at elever vil benytte det til deres projekter.

Læs kompendiet her: Kompendium om kernekraft og klimakrise

So your players are murder hobos…

You are running a roleplaying campaign, but some players get giddy and start murdering people for little to no reason. What do you do? You don’t want to straight up tell the players that they can’t do that, but at the same time you want the world to feel real and alive, and having no consequences for murder can make the NPCs feel like they are not real people.

So the question is how to play out real consequences for murder. I’m assuming that in your world the players are powerful enough to overcome the average person in combat, but there are people and factions far more powerful than them.

The first thing the a player will get with a murder is reputation. Every person they encounter will potentially recognise them, and react accordingly.

Ideas for reactions when the murder is recognised:

  • Condemn the murderer verbally “have you no shame?”
  • Quietly end their buisness “I don’t deal with the likes of you”
  • Sneak away as quietly as possible and look for aid
  • Run away as quickly as possible and look for aid
  • Plead for their lives and offer gift “let me live, take my gold but spare my life!”
  • Attract attention with shouting “It’s him! He did it! Let’s get him!”
  • Attempt to covertly take them down (eg. poison or knock out from behind)
  • Attack the murderer while shouting: “Come on, we can take him!”
  • Get a weapon and stand-off “stay away from my stuff and my family. I know who you are!”
  • Offer them work “I know what you are capable of, and I have just the job for you…”
  • Blackmailing them “Do this thing for me or I call the guard on you…”

So how likely are the players to be recognised? Make up your own rule for the roll, but keep the following modifiers in mind:

  • Distance to place of murder (more distance less likely)
  • Player is easy to recognise (scars, weird hairstyle, unusual clothing or equipment)
  • Player carries visible weapon or armour – smells like danger
  • Time since murder (longer time less likely)
  • Observer have seen the player before
  • Observer knew the murder victim well
  • Observer is a guard, official or investigator
  • Total number of murders the player have comited
  • Importance of murder victims (status or reputation)
  • Observer hear the name of the murderer
  • Observer hear that the player have been to the place of the murder

When players walk in places with many people, don’t roll for everyone. Instead, add a modifier for the number of people, and roll to see if any one observer recognise them.

Now who could come to the aid of one who recognize a murderer? Some bystanders might. The guard will usually arrive. But if a small patrol of local guards are not up to the task, some other things will happen.

  • A large crowd of villagers (+50) gather with pitchforks and torches to capture the murderer
  • The captain of the guard personally lead the chase – might be powerful
  • The guard recieve well-trained and equipped reinforcements from other areas
  • A powerful local character decide to get involved (warrior or mage)
  • The rich family of a local person send their personal guard to capture the murderer
  • A bounty is put out, and attract bounty hunters (some of them very powerful)
  • A powerful character has family in the area and go there to capture the murderer
  • The local lord or king sees the players as a personal threat, and gather an army to defeat them (including powerful warriors and mages)

If they survive their hunters, the players should eventually figure out one of the following solutions to their problem:

  • Hide as well as they can, fake names and use disgueses, until people forget
  • Travel far away where noone know about the murder
  • Join a powerful force that people will not cross (a powerful band of raiders, the king’s guard, a powerful religious cult or band of mages)
  • Keep one move ahead of the people that hunt you, always on the move
  • Clear your name by bribing, manipulating or enchanting the right people
  • Fake your death
  • Gather an army, go on conquest and become lords in their own right
  • Become saviours of the realm, so people overlook the past misdeeds

All of these are great stories to be told, that does not diminish the fact that the players have become lawless outcasts. And the players can still have fun participating in the stories, it’s not just a punishment, just their players having to deal with the situation they caused as part of their adventures.

This is the outline of how you deal with murder hobos in a realistic way. Read on for some good advice on how to play this in practice.

Capture or kill

The players have gotten a reputation, and hunters start looking for them. Now, the story should not end here. The players should realise what their options are. They can fight some of the threats, but eventually encounter an overwhelming force.

As long as the players are not reckless, they should be caught alive by their hunters rather than killed. Then the players can make an attempt to escape their captivity one way or the other. If they are not skillful enough to sneak or manipulate their way out, they might be send on a “suicide mission” instead of execution.

Hunters get bored

Don’t overdo the hunters. You probably have a world with a lot of conflict, monsters and bandits lurk, maybe the neighbouring country is looking to invade. Powerful characters and military units have other things to do than chasing the murderer of some pesant.

If the murderers flee from the hunters, they should eventually give up and move on. The hunters might have some resources available to track the murderers like dogs or magic. But again, they have other things to do, and they might not want to call in favours with every mage they know to track the murderers down.

On the other hand, should the murderers ever go completely out of hand – murder several rich or powerful people, murder a whole village – that’s a different story. A lord or king might see the party as an enemy faction, and declare a war on them. In this case, the hunt will continue for months, and no resource will be spared to hunt and defeat them.

Starting over

If the murder hobos start killing again, they will have to deal with the consequences again. The solution list works for past murders, most solutions do not allow players to murder new people with no consequence.

Cards of Knowledge

I’ve made a cardgame for teaching, which has been quite successful among my students.

The main idea is simple: Players ask each other the questions on the cards. If the answer is correct they score points, if it is wrong they take a point of damage instead.

But there are some details which make this game more suitable for teaching than games like Trivial Pursuit.

Cards with Danish questions. Translation: “Power formula. Double damage. Roll a dice. At 5 to 6 double the damage for wrong answer. What is the relationship between power, energy and time (formula)?”. “Capacity of heat definition. What is the definition of capacity of heat (symbol C)?”. “Added heat. What is the formula for the added heat during heating?”

First off, the game is played in teams with 2-4 players. Every time a team ask a question to the other, they also randomly choose a player on the answering team, using a dice. And the team only get full points (usually 2) if the chosen player answer the question, without help from his team. If the team help, they only get 1 point.

The game is designed to engage every student by randomly giving them the option of earning extra points for the team. This ensures that even students who find the subject difficult will not just give up immediately.

There is a time limit of 1 minute to get the answer correct. So if a team cannot answer within the time limit (or give a wrong answer), they take the point of damage.

You can play with a limited amount of cards, if you either have a hard time coming up with enough questions for the subject, or if you want to give the cards as student rewards during teaching.
When all cards have been played, the team with the most points win.
A team can also win by gaining total of 8 points, and a team will lose if they take 4 points of damage.

Damage is not “negative points”, they don’t cancel each other out. This is important to remember, becuase the game is designed to end after 20 minutes, since teams will either reach 8 points or 4 damage by that time.

The designer of “Cards of Knowledge” (in Danish “Fagets Mestre”) is Bo Paivinen Ullersted. All rights reserved.

Velkommen til Team Time Travel

Jeg er super glad for at kunne samarbejde med Theo Thy, som har designet et læringsspil til engelsk undervisningen i gymnasiet.

Spillet Team Time Travel bygger på korte øvelser fra undervisningen, hvor elever skal svare på ret “skæve” spørgsmål. Ideen er naturligvis at de bliver presset ud i nogle uvante situationer, og måske også bliver nødt til at anvende nogle engelske ord og begreber de sjældent bruger.

Prøv spillet gratis her: Team Time Travel regler og kort (version 1.02)

Disse udfordringer bliver så grundstenen i et spil, hvor elever dyster imod hinanden i klumper af tre hold. Hver udfordring stilles til to af holdene, hvor det tredje hold så agere dommere, og skal vælge den bedste løsning.

Reglerne er så designet på en genial måde, hvor man for at vinde spillet skal spille på både den sjoveste og fagligt mest givende måde. Bedømmelseskriterierne er nemlig at spillerne taler engelsk, har en kreativ løsning, og inddrager flest muligt af deres holdkammerater.

Prøv spillet gratis her: Team Time Travel regler og kort (version 1.02)

Hvis jeg skal tage analyse-brillerne på, scorer spillet højt på en lang række motivationstyper – her bruger jeg navngivningen fra Octalysis. Der er konkurrencen imod de andre, og samarbejdet på holdet (CD5 social indflydelse og relationer). Kreativitet (CD3) er et krav for at vinde, og der er nysgerrighed (CD7) omkring hvad den næste udfordring bliver – både fordi det er ukendt, men især fordi udfordringerne er så skæve og varierede.
Desuden er det altid en success-oplevelse (CD2) at få points, fordi det per definition er udfordrende. Man skal jo gøre det bedre end sine modstandere, så hvert point er en sejr.

Jeg er også ret begejstret for fleksibiliteten i spillet, idet man kan vælge en varighed på 20-30 min. eller et helt modul. Eller også kan man inddrage spillet i et forløb om en tidsperiode, hvor det så spilles i slutningen af op til 5 moduler i forløbet.

Prøv spillet gratis her: Team Time Travel regler og kort (version 1.02)

Spillet er stadig nyt, da Theo pga. perioden med virtuel undervisning endnu ikke har kunnet afprøve det på eleverne. Men han har god erfaring med flere af udfordringerne, så det bliver nok kun bedre af at udvide det til et spil.

Vil du vide mere om læringsspil og gamification i undervisningen?
Se Gamificerede undervisningsmetoder ,
eller hold dig opdateret ved at tilmelde dig Facebook gruppen Gamification i undervisningen

Skyd med kanoner

Spillet Kanon Kamp er et læringsspil om fysik – mere præcist om kinematik, altså hvordan objekter bevæger sig. Man kan også sige at det er en simulation der er gjort til et spil.

Jeg har udviklet det som en udfordring til mine elever, som tester deres forståelse af den undervisning de har gennemgået i kinematik.

Spillernes opgave er helt simpelt at ramme fjendens kanoner inden de selv bliver ramt. Hele klassen spiller samtidigt på en projektor koblet til en enkelt computer.


Hvert hold af elever skal så regne på skuddet ud fra oplysninger om vandret og lodret afstand til fjenden. Herefter indleverer de deres beregnede skudhastighed og vinkel til underviseren, der taster ind, så de kan se resultatet.

Jeg har selv benyttet det som afsluttende del af et narrativ omkring elevernes konfrontation med “Napoleons Soldater”, som de tidligere var blevet kidnappede af, og var undsluppet fra.
Det hjalp gevaldigt på stemningen at der kørte dramatisk musik i baggrunden (“Battle Music of Lord of the Rings” – YouTube) – der var også slukket lys, dog mest på grund af en dårlig projektor.

Læs mere om narrativ i undervisningen her: I gang med narrativ undervisning

Til sidst fik eleverne lidt tid til at skrive om deres kamp – de skulle helst også nævne hvordan de lavede beregningerne. Det handlede også om, at jeg ikke på forhånd kunne vide hvor lang tid det ville tage for dem at (forhåbentligt) vinde spillet.

Har du lyst til selv at prøve?

Her er et link til download af “Kanon kamp” til PC. Det er filen “kanon kamp.exe” der skal køres.
Og her er Kanon kamp lærervejledningen, der instruerer i brug af spillet og struktureringen af undervisningen rundt om spillet.

Vil du vide mere om at motivere elever med spil og gamification?
Bliv medlem af Facebook-gruppen Gamification i undervisningen
eller mere om narrativ i undervisningen her: I gang med narrativ undervisning

Spil og multitasking i undervisningen

Kan vi hjælpe vores elever til en bedre skærmkultur, der ikke distraherer dem fra undervisningen?

I den følgende video har en spildesigner undersøgt hvorfor gymnasieelever (high school) spiller de såkaldte Idle Games.

Extra Credits: Idle Games

Det viser sig, at eleverne ligefrem føler sig utilpasse hvis de ikke multitasker, som man for eksempel gør når man lytter til fælles undervisning fra tavlen.
Måske er det ikke så underligt, i betragtning af at eleverne lige som os andre er vandt til altid at have en skærm til rådighed, og derfor hurtigt søger til dem når det andet der sker omkring dem er for “kedeligt”.

For nogle undervisere er det måske en nyhed at også mange gode elever multitasker i undervisningen – man ser jo kun de svage/sløve elever med underholdning på skærmene. Men den illusion opstår fordi de fleste elever bruger det i kort tid ad gangen og formår at “tabbe” væk så snart underviseren nærmer sig. Det er så kun de sløve, der fortaber sig i skærmen eller ikke opdager at underviseren bevæger sig.


Mange af de muligheder eleverne har for en kort adspredelse ved koncentrationsbesvær er dog destruktive.
Lad os som eksempel se på Facebook og andre sociale medier. Eleven tjekker måske kun mediet i 5-10 sekunder, men hvis der nu pludselig ligger en indbydelse til en fest, eller et provokerende indlæg, så vil spekulationerne køre i lang tid efter, og lægge beslag på elevens koncentrationsevne.

I den kontekst er “idle games” et godt valg. De handler bare om at man skal holde spillet kørende i baggrunden, så tæller det op med points. Når man så vælger “aktivt” at spille spillet, handler det kun om at købe opgraderinger så man fremover kan få points endnu hurtigere. En fordel i undervisningen er at det tager kort tid, men endnu vigtigere er det at der ikke er så meget at tænke over. Når spillet er væk igen, kan eleven koncentrere sig 100% om undervisningen.

Derfor vil det give mening at anbefale eleverne idle games som Clicker Hero og Cookie Clicker, hvis de absolut skal multitaske. Man kunne også overveje om der skulle udvikles undervisningsspil i den genre. Det er naturligvis begrænset hvor avanceret indholdet kan være, men måske kan der vises et nyt fagbegreb hver gang der “klikkes”?

Man kan naturligvis også bare udvikle undervisningen så den bliver så engagerende at eleverne slet ikke oplever koncentrationsbesvær. For ideer til dette, se Gamificerede undervisningsmetoder.

Vil du vide mere?

Meld dig til Facebook-gruppen Gamification i Undervisningen og følg med.


Strategi for gamification – del 1

Hvis nu der fandtes en strategi, der konsistent forbedrede resultaterne for enhver organisation med mindst 10% – uanset hvilket felt, og uanset hvilken form for resultater der måles på – skulle vi så ikke bruge det i undervisningen?

Og det er der: Konsulentfirmaet Octalysis Group er ekstrems succesfulde, og bruger gamification til at forbedre deres klienters resultater med ofte langt over 10%. Et punkt de ofte involveres i er træning af medarbejdere – med andre ord i undervisning.

Det er nok ikke nogen overraskelse at det bagvedliggende system er Octalysis, som jeg har nævnt mange gange før. Men denne gang vil jeg introducere den præcise strategi for succesfuld gamification – i vores tilfælde af undervisningen.


Business Metrics

Lad os starte med slutningen: “Business metrics” er de parametre vi gerne vil forbedre, i prioriteret rækkefølge. Alle elementer i systemet skal understøtte de mål vi sætter os.
Hvis du har brug for solid evidens for at systemet virker – måske vil du udgive en artikel, forsvare det over for din rektor, eller bare imponere kollegaerne – så er det vigtigt at vælge parametre der er så målbare at de kan omsættes til tal.
Hvis du vælger at “nøjes” med mere bløde parametre som samarbejde, engagement og tilfredshed, så husk alligevel at holde fingeren i jorden med spørgsmål til eleverne – hvis du har mere tid kan interviews og spørgeskemaer bruges.

Men for at vi kan komme rigtigt i gang, skal vi vide hvem eleverne egentlig er…


Hvem spiller spillet? Selvom hvis du som mig underviser gymnasieelever, som derfor har ca. samme alder, så kan der alligevel være stor forskel på klasser.
Åbenlyst er der tendens til at forskellige elevtyper vælger hhv. HTX, HHX, STX, EUX og HF. Oven i det er der studieretninger, som yderligere koncentrerer bestemte typer i klassen.

Selvom du har en god fornemmelse af hvem dine elever er, så er det en god ide at undersøge hvad der egentlig motiverer dem. “Sløve” typer ved man ofte ikke andet om end at de ikke motiveres af den nuværende undervisning – men hvad skal der så til?

En velegnet test man kan bede eleverne om at tage er HEDAX user type test, der er designet netop til brug i gamificerede systemer. Herunder ses resultaterne for et af mine egne hold:

Resultatet af en typetest på en HTX klasse, studieretning programmering

Som det kan ses af typetesten er der rigtig mange “player” typer, som gerne vil maksimere deres “gevinst” i spillet, hvad enten den gives i form af guld og XP, eller i form af samlekort.
Til gengæld er der ikke særlig mange “distruptor” spillere, det er en type der meget gerne vil have indflydelse på hvordan undervisningen/spillet foregår, og kan finde på at undergrave systemet hvis de ikke får den mulighed.

Resten af de andre typer er nogenlunde gennemsnitlige, med en smule overvægt af “Socialiser” og “Achiever”, og lidt mindre “Free Spirit”.

De resultater er vigtigt at have med når jeg designer og justerer mine systemer. En meget simpel måde at anvende typetesten på er at se på hvilke spilelementer der hører til hver type, og vægte dem ud fra resultatet, ud fra nedenstående figur.

Med den store overvægt af “players” er det vigtigt for mig at holde styr på points og levels, guld og andre belønninger samt “lotteriet”, tilfældig trækning af belønninger. Badges har jeg ikke med, og det er et bevidst valg ikke at inkludere et leaderboard – læs mere om det valg her: Synlig læring, konkurrence og motivation.


En grundigere gennemgang af typerne fåes på Gamified UK user types: HEDAX, det er værd at læse lidt her så du kan få det maksimale ud af informationen.

Med spillerne og dit mål fastlagt er du allerede bedre rustet til at gamificere undervisningen, men der er mere endnu… læs Strategi for gamification, del 2for de sidste fire dele af strategien.

Tilmeld dig Facebook-gruppen Gamification i undervisningen for at få besked når næste del udgives.

Læs mere om Octalysis systemet på Octalysis er syntesen af det hele eller Octalysis i overblik

Setting of Thermal Showdown

Brilliant scientists have come to fight for their causes, piloting an impenetrable robot armor they each go into battle followed by their robotic creations and allies.
An unstoppable force, the only real challenge to the inventors are others with an equal skill in producing and controlling robots.

Their favored way of dealing with an opponent scientist is to overheat his robot armor, leaving him defenceless.

Meet the scientists

The Enforcer works with the police, stopping any rouge scientist that would break the law.

Natures Defender will fight against the destruction of the land. Oil, logging and mining companies all fear his action against their “technically legal” projects.

The Mastermind fights for science, for progress at any cost. The laws against human cloning, scentient AI, artificial lifeforms and self-replicating robots are made to be broken.

The Hero of the People will always fight for the weak and downtrodden. Be it racial discrimination, economic oppression, ethnic cleansing or plain dictatorship, the Hero of the People will pick a fight.

Back to main page of Thermal Showdown: Thermal Showdown info

Back to overview of the blog: Main overview


Opponents for single player TS

Play against “computer” opponents

The game contain a series of “computer” opponents you can play to practice, or when you lack a human opponent. Every opponent has a name, and instructions on how to play their side of the table.

Each one play with a specific set of cards, and has a specific behavior.

Can you defeat all of them?

The Apprentice

The Apprentice play with a set of four Toy Soldiers and four Tiny Robots.
All eight cards starts on his hand, which is visible to you.

Card style

Every round the Apprentice play one Battle card:

Round 1, 3, 5 etc. play a Toy Soldier

Round 2, 4, 6 etc. play a Tiny Robot

If ever the Apprentice run out of a type of card, it plays the other type.
The Apprentice starts with a hand of all eight cards.
The Apprentice draws cards directly from the discard pile.

Attack style

The Apprentice attacks, in order of priority

  1. The player directly (if no ready defenders)
  2. Cards that may be defeated with no casualties
    (attacking a Toy Soldier with a Tiny Robot)
  3. Cards that has Melting with no casualties
    (attacking a Frozen Machinery with a Tiny Robot)
  4. Cards that will be defeated with casualties
    (attacking a Toy Soldier with a Toy Soldier)

The apprentice never use multiattack.

Extra challenge: Defeat this opponent without taking damage.

The Defender

The defender play with a deck: Two of each battle card, except the Ninja.

Card style

The Defender plays one battle card each round, the card with the highest energy cost which also comply with the following rules:

  • If the Defender has no cards with blocking on the table, a card with blocking is played (if possible).
  • If the Defender has a blocking card, but no cards with radiation, a card with radiation is played (if possible).
  • Otherwise, any card can be played.

The Defender starts with 6 available cards (visible to the player), and draw a new one from his deck each round.

Attack style

The Defender attacks the other player directly with every Battle Card that has radiation.

The Defender never attacks with blocking cards.

The Defender use “normal” cards (without blocking and radiation) to attack cards that can be defeated with no casualties. For example attacking a Toy Soldier with a Tiny Robot.

The Defender never use multiattack, and only attack Melting cards if they can be defeated in one attack.

In case of defending against a multiattack, the first priority of the Defender is to defeat the highest energy cost card (trick cards included) that he is able to. His second priority is to deal damage to a card with Melting.

Back to overview of Thermal Showdown here: Thermal Showdown info

Back to overwiew of the blog here: Main overview